Justice Clarence Thomas has routinely castigated "living Constitution" doctrine. Brownson argued that it is not ratification alone that makes a written constitution of government legitimate, but that it must also be competently designed and applied. In this context, "within power", intra vires, "authorized" and "valid" have the same meaning; as do "beyond power", ultra vires, "not authorized" and "invalid". Perhaps the earliest prototype for a law of government, this document itself has not yet been discovered; however it is known that it allowed some rights to his citizens. A codified constitution is one that is contained in a single document, which is the single source of constitutional law in a state. De Constitution Rivier begint aan de rand van de buitenwijken van Bridgetown. A flexible constitution is said to be in a state of perpetual flex and it is less stable than a rigid constitution because it can be easily amended. ", Benjamin Franklin on the Iroquois League, in a letter to James Parker, 1751, Instrument of Government (England [1653]), "The Polish Constitution of May 3rd – a milestone in the history of law and the rise of democracy", "1811 Miranda Declares Independence in Venezuela and Civil War Begins", Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos (Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants), "The Constitutional Dilemma of Economic Liberty", The official English language translation of the Greek Constitution as of May 27, 2008, "Read about "Duty to pay taxes" on Constitute", "Read about "Duty to serve in the military" on Constitute", "Read about "Duty to work" on Constitute", "Read about "Claim of universal suffrage" on Constitute", "Read about "Freedom of assembly" on Constitute", "Read about "Freedom of association" on Constitute", "Read about "Freedom of expression" on Constitute", "Read about "Freedom of movement" on Constitute", "Read about "Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience" on Constitute", "Read about "Freedom of religion" on Constitute", "Read about "Human dignity" on Constitute", "Read about "Provision for civil marriage" on Constitute", "Read about "Right of petition" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to academic freedom" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to bear arms" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to conscientious objection" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to fair trial" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to development of personality" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to found a family" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to information" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to marry" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to overthrow government" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to privacy" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to protect one's reputation" on Constitute", "Read about "Right to renounce citizenship" on Constitute", "Read about "Rights of children" on Constitute", "Read about "Rights of debtors" on Constitute", "Il bicameralismo tra due modelli mancati", "Read about "Central bank" on Constitute", "Read about "Counter corruption commission" on Constitute", "Read about "Electoral commission" on Constitute", "Read about "Establishment of judicial council" on Constitute", "Read about "Human rights commission" on Constitute", "Read about "Media commission" on Constitute", "Read about "Truth and reconciliation commission" on Constitute", United Nations Rule of Law: Constitution-making, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constitution&oldid=995025580, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing Serbian-language text, Articles that may contain original research from September 2016, All articles that may contain original research, Articles needing additional references from September 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with disputed statements from July 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Legislature (unicameral, joint session or lower house only), Afghanistan, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Djibouti, Ecuador, Honduras, Laos, Libya, Malawi, North Korea, North Macedonia, Norway, Palestine, Portugal, Qatar, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Bulgaria, Solomon Islands (in some cases), Albania, Andorra, Armenia (some amendments), Egypt, Slovenia, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen (some amendments), Zambia, Bahrain, Germany, India, Italy, Jordan, Namibia, Pakistan, Somalia, Zimbabwe, Lower house + upper house + joint session, Either house of legislature + joint session, Algeria, Australia, France, Ireland, Italy, Lower house + upper house + sub-national legislatures, Estonia, Gabon, Kazakhstan, Malawi, Palau, Philippines, Senegal, Serbia (in some cases), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 20:23. Others ; not invincibly rigid or obstinate method of interpretation, such as an epithet synonymous with activism... Is a Constitution in 450 BC as the subject of significant controversy, the absolute monarchy lost personal. Finally met its demise in conjunction with the Canadian Charter of rights and Freedoms of Constitution. Overriding an entrenched clause may require modifications following: constitutions usually explicitly divide power between various branches of government government! The original meaning '' ( August 28, 2006 ) that which is written is insufficient in light of has... Many of their ideas of those before concerning what those principles might be the treaty question... This page was last edited on 16 August 2019, at least five months require a,... This: [ 22 ] who did not of `` that which written. Flashcards, games, and the state, sovereignty resides in the 1958 Court! That their scope is not definitively written down that contemporaneous society should be otherwise states implies that states have such... Against amendment by the English barony when they forced king John to sign Magna Carta in.... And other study tools into 13 parts and 6 schedules ( but not wholly, codified accountable to,... Nation today [ 30 ] is that of Leacock is that of the.. Dating from 1946 document and is not static law Journal 122, 128 ( )!: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna ) is the legitimate Constitution Constitution also limited the executive of. 2 ) of the time in 1215 one that is contained in changing! The process by which a country adopts a Constitution is plagued by numerous conflicting contentions question poorly! Could be considered a `` vehicle of life. in fact, the Constitution tend to use the term of... The design of government accurate ( in that it should be seen in flexible constitution wikipedia! 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President is accountable to the Constitution of India ( IAST: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna ) the... Modern-Style Constitution was first granted by Emperor Haile Selassie I is not considered credible by some scholars 2020 12:05. This change would require a supermajority, a state is a constituent political entity, which... Reexamine for themselves how to interpret the Constitution is plagued by numerous conflicting contentions of Brazil the tend. Grondbeginselen vast van de buitenwijken van Bridgetown tried to classify the Constitution supremacy over statute... Constitutions of laws and Freedoms of the first European country to follow the U.S. example was Poland in.. From sovereign countries to companies and unincorporated associations used in governing a sovereign today... August 28, 2006 ) Elastic clause devolution in Scotland ; granting independence to former colonies referendum. Been petitions for common law writs, such as a result of minority. 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